Progress and Results

Summary of Deliverable 1.1: Big travel demand data analytics support tool

Deliverable 1.1 deals with the design and development of a tool to process, filter and analyze travel demand data. In several iterations of the requirements analysis process, the available data sets from the case studies were analyzed and the desired functionalities of the data analysis tool were defined together with all partners. Based on the requirements, the architecture of the tool was designed, and the tool was implemented accordingly.

The data storage backend consists of a modern graph database, which contains a transit layer and a passenger layer to store the cleaned and preprocessed input data. Queries against the database are implemented in the Apache Gremlin open source graph query language and can be called via a set of well-defined REST APIs.  The APIs are defined using Swagger 2.0, which ensures easy documentation and integration into other applications.

Are you interested in the full text of this deliverable? Contact: Riccardo Scarinci.

Summary of Deliverable 1.2: Form and flow dynamics at interchange, urban and regional network layers

The main objective of WP1 “Unravelling form and flow dynamics” of the TRANS-FORM project is to understand well the characteristics and evolution of traveller flow dynamics at three different geographical scales, namely transport hub, urban and regional network layers, and their integration. This deliverable “D1.2: Form and flow dynamics at interchange, urban and regional network layers” mainly reports the result of Task 1.2 “Multi-level analysis of traveller flows” in WP 1. In this task, we analyse the traveller dynamics that take place at each network level of above-mentioned three different levels. Descriptive analyses by using big transportation data are reported here: pedestrian flows inside a single multi-modal transport hub of Switzerland, flow dynamics on an urban public transport network of the Netherlands, and the transit flows in a region of Sweden. A number of different techniques are used and developed for the analyses. In this task, we also establish a common system representation and mathematical notations to be used throughout the project and modelling developments. Urban form plays a significant role in traveller dynamics and mobility, as topography and human-built infrastructures impact the choice and mode people choose to move around.

Are you interested in the full text of this deliverable? Contact: Yuki Oyama.

Summary of Deliverable 1.3: Graphical analysis interface of travel demand flows

This deliverable is the final outcome of Task 1.3 “Visualizing the evolution of travel flows” within WP1 “Unravelling Form and Flow Dynamics”. The objectives of WP1 within TRANS-FORM project are to map, visualize and understand the spatial and temporal complexity of travel patterns, and to unravel the underlying urban form at different scales. WP1 integrates data concerning vehicles and travellers flows using informatics techniques. Passenger flows will be used to unravel the underlying urban form based on observed activity patterns considering physical context and topology. This will provide an understanding of flow dynamic at three different network layers. The outcome of WP1 provides foundations for WP2-4. Indeed, in the framework of task 1.3, a graphical analytics tool is developed to enable the visualization of travel flows at different network layers and to analyse how they evolve. Moreover, a live map will display a range of travel flow characteristics and produce statistics and graphs through a user interface. The graphical analytics tool will be instrumental for researchers in understanding system dynamics, designing scenarios and discussing with stakeholders on current conditions and the implications of alternative scenarios.

This deliverable is available here, D1.3-final

Summary of Deliverable 2.1: Passenger-focused Indicators of Service Variability

This document reports on the work performed in task 2.1 of the TRANS-FORM project, and is entitled “Passenger-focused Indicators of Service Variability”. This task was performed as part of WP2 “Measuring and Modelling Passenger Interchange Activities”.

The document discusses and proposes methodologies for quantifying and measuring service variability in the context of public transportation. To that end, the concepts of reliability and robustness are introduced. They describe service degradation in public transportation systems due to deviation from scheduled operations, considering recurrent disturbances and non-recurrent disruptions, respectively. A range of variability measures is presented that allow to analyse and evaluate passenger flows across entire public transportation networks. First, the state-of-practice is examined. Studied indicators include punctuality, quantifying the deviation of the actual arrival/departure time from the scheduled one, or regularity, describing the distribution of headways in high-frequency services. Advanced indicators such as residual capacity or connectivity reliability are also discussed. Such commonly applied variability indicators are typically limited to vehicle operations, i.e., they do not consider service variability from a passenger perspective. Particularly in the context of transfer flows, this represents a serious shortcoming. To address this limitation, a set of indicators is developed that assumes a traveller-oriented perspective. These range from extensions of existing measures, such as passenger-weighted vehicle punctuality, to novel service-oriented vulnerability indicators that are to be practically assessed and established for the first time within the TRANS-FORM project. Examples include the likelihood of missed connections, route-travel time variation, passenger-specific excess travel times and their variability, or perception-based journey times. The proposed indicators are first discussed and developed separately at the level of a transportation hub, at the urban and the regional level, before they are combined in an integrated framework.

The aforementioned measures are tested and applied to three different case studies that are considered throughout the TRANS-FORM project, allowing to understand their nature at the various aggregation levels and across national borders. The wider aim of the development of service variability measures pertains to the development of a multi-layer passenger flow model that can represent flow dynamics across a public transportation network, and which allows to evaluate and steer transit operations from the perspective of individual passengers. Specifically, in the subsequent work packages of TRANS-FORM, the proposed indicators will be used within a traffic management tool to evaluate system performance under current or alternative scenarios, for instance in terms of disruptions, and to develop management strategies that minimize them.

This deliverable is available here, D2.1-final

Summary of Deliverable 2.2: Multi-layer Passenger Flow Network Model

Modelling transportation systems is a crucial aspect that allows the understanding of the internal passenger dynamics and the development of control strategies to improve the public transport service. This deliverable reports the modelling approaches for passenger flows and the related public transport operations used in TRANS-FORM.

We model three distinctive levels: hub, urban and regional. The hub-level model represents the dynamics, movement and activities of passengers in transportation hubs. We present a framework suitable to simulate, evaluate and generate pedestrian management strategies. BusMezzo, a multi-agent and multi-modal simulation, is used to represent the dynamics of public transport systems at the urban level. The model includes transit services, travellers and management policies. The regional level is composed of the railway infrastructure and train traffic model. This includes origins and destinations of passengers, lines and stations, and train movement. The train traffic is simulated as a discrete-event model. The model is able to evaluate re-scheduling decisions on arrival and departures times for all trains.

Each level uses information from the other levels. The pedestrian travel times within a transportation hub, generated by the hub level, are used by the urban and regional levels to evaluate passenger dynamics more accurately. Similarly, the hub model uses information from the other two levels to generate precise passenger arrivals. The connection between the regional and urban levels takes place through the hub level. This means that hubs are the interfaces between levels. As a result, this modelling level is placed in the middle of the integration framework.

The models summarised in this deliverable are the foundation for the generation of multi-level control strategies for improving public transport services.

This deliverable is available here, D2.2-final

Summary of Deliverable 3.1: A toolbox of real-time strategies for smart transfers

Organizing, financing and operating public transport service networks can be quite a challenge. The liberalization of the public transport sector within the EU has introduced some additional challenges since the public transport systems nowadays more often consist of services operated by multiple organizations. When passengers move between public transport service networks that are operated by different organizations, the need for effective coordination become evident. The importance of effective coordination and the associated challenge to achieve this – independent of organizational structure – is the point of origin for the TRANS-FORM project. The project focuses on the development of an integrated passenger-focused management approach that takes advantage of multiple data sources and state-of-the-art scheduling support.

This document reports on the work performed in task 3.1 entitled “Real-time traffic management optimization” and task 3.2 entitled “Smart real-time strategies” of the TRANS-FORM project. These tasks were performed as part of work package 3 “Methods for Planning and Operating Robust Services”.

The work in the mentioned tasks focuses on how to model an integrated passenger-focused management approach including developing strategies that enable improved coordination and smooth passenger transfers. This document contains a specification of the configuration of each modelled level (hub, urban and regional) and the proposed types of management strategies as well as the required information flow. A specification of the proposed integration of those three levels and their interaction is also presented.

Are you interested in the full text of this deliverable? Contact:

Summary of Deliverable 3.2: Algorithms for short-term prediction of passenger flows

Public transport networks are increasingly complex and multimodal and thus challenging to manage, while it is increasingly important that the networks are robust. One of the goals of this project, TRANS-FORM, is to develop effective strategies and methods to support decision makers in transforming public transportation into a seamless travel experience perceived well by the travellers. Furthermore, the project focuses on the development of an integrated passenger-oriented management approach that takes advantage of multiple data sources and state-of-the-art scheduling support. The “passenger-oriented” means that the planning and operational control of the public transport service network do not only concern operator- and network-related aspects, but also considers the reliability of passenger transfers and quality of service. In order to introduce and apply effective passenger-oriented control and management strategies, predictions of the passenger flow dynamics – including passenger route choice estimations due to real-time re-scheduling of services – could be useful.

This document reports the work performed in task 3.3 entitled “Short-term forecasts of passenger flows” as a part of work package 3 “Methods for planning and operating robust services” of the TRANS-FORM project. The work in this task focuses on how to predict short-term demand, as an effect of changes in the transport service network due to e.g. disturbances and passenger preferences. This document presents the algorithms for passenger flow predictions to be incorporated in the real-time management strategies for the three different levels (hub, urban and regional) that are outlined in the previous project deliverable “D3.1: A toolbox of real-time strategies for smart transfers”.

Are you interested in the full text of this deliverable? Contact: Yuki Oyama.

Summary of Deliverable 3.4: Tool for evaluating real-time strategies

The objective of the TRANS-FORM project is to enable the monitoring and analysis of passenger activities and flows within regional and urban public transport networks, and transportation hubs that connect these transportation networks. For this purpose, three separate models have been developed, each focusing on a different public transport network level: hub, urban and regional.

The goal of this project is to provide an analysis of real case studies consisting of regional and urban networks connected via hubs. For this purpose of considering the interactions between the different network levels, the models are required to be run in a (predefined) sequence and to exchange data between them. One such sequence will represent a case study.

To integrate the models, a software tool named TransFormInt is developed in the scope of this deliverable. The role of the tool is to enable easy definition of the model sequences and control their execution. Also, the tool performs the necessary data transformations of the model outputs into the input data format required by the other models.

Are you interested in the full text of this deliverable? Contact: Molyneaux Nicholas. Read more about the integration tool on the page for the Integration Tool.

Summary of Deliverable 4.1: Impacts of Smart Transfer Schemes
under Various Scenarios

The main objective of this deliverable is to demonstrate the modelling capabilities developed in the course of the TRANS-FORM project by means of a series of applications for diverse case studies and scenarios. The development of the multi-layer integration modelling tool culminates in this deliverable where it is applied to the flagship case study of the Hague in the Netherlands using a sequence of models: train traffic management model, pedestrian flow hub model and dynamic public transport assignment model. The models exchange information about vehicle and passenger flows and delays, allowing the modelling of propagation and spill-over effects, as well as potential mitigation measures. Additional case studies at the hub and regional transit networks level further assess the impacts of related flow control and re-scheduling strategies, respectively. This deliverable reports the work performed in tasks 4.1 and 4.2 of the TRANS-FORM project.

Are you interested in the full text of this deliverable? Contact: Menno Yap.

Summary of Deliverable 4.2: Summary of the Case Studies Results and Practical Recommendations

Delays at one network level – pedestrian movements at hubs, train movements in the railway system, buses and trams moving in mixed-traffic environment and passengers route choices at all these levels – may propagate to other parts of the network as well as other network layers. Similarly, the impacts of control interventions such as railway rescheduling, holding for synchronization and gates at terminals may also extend beyond the immediate local environment and may improve their mitigation impact by utilizing information from other network levels.

This premise has been demonstrated in a series of case studies at the hub, railway and urban levels as well as in a joint case study that combines all network layers as reported in deliverable “D4.1: Impacts of smart transfer schemes under various scenarios”. In this deliverable, we reflect on the case study findings reported in D4.1. In particular, we discuss the practical implications of our work as well as study limitations and potential directions for further research. After reviewing those for different modelling levels and the integrated case we reflect on how the TRANS-FORM project achieved its research and development goals.

Are you interested in the full text of this deliverable? Contact: Oded Cats.

Summary of Deliverable 5.1: Case Study Set-up Descriptions

The three main chapters of the document cover the three case studies covered by the TRANS-FORM project. First, the hub level case is presented. For this case, the application is a pedestrian movement analysis within the train station in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland. Second, the urban level case is presented. In the urban level case, The Hague is used as the case study area. The focus is on modelling the public transport flows operated by HTM at the urban-metropolitan level in this area. Third, the regional level case is presented. This case uses the Blekinge region, Sweden as the case area. The focus is on regional trains and buses, organized by the regional public transport authority, Blekingetrafiken.

This deliverable is available here, D5.1-final

Summary of Deliverable 5.2: Exploitation and commercialization

This deliverable is the final outcome of Task 5.2 Exploitation and commercialization. In the framework of this task, the prospects of commercialization and a business case are examined together with industrial partners and stakeholders. A market potential analysis is made based on end-user needs and existing decision support solutions to build transportation planning processes. Potential integration with existing data warehouses and fleet management and scheduling software is examined also in the document. Moreover, innovative business models have been defined based on a differentiated value proposition from the current landscape of solutions oriented to the simulation and planning of traffic and transport systems, whose operation is mainly based on the generation of the demand side and transport networks models to simulate scenarios and evaluate planning strategies.

The differential factor of the defined proposals is to generate value from real data about the demand side in mobility services together with service and infrastructure data of the transport networks, and from them generate valuable information. This information allows evaluating what impacts on passengers’ different situations can generate in an intuitive and visual way, allowing the decision makers to establish cost-efficient and profitable strategies towards a high quality intermodal public transport service.
In the financial analysis made the commercial products’ profitability is demonstrated in several scenarios under the premise of a conservative approach.”

Are you interested in the full text of this deliverable? Contact: Patricia Bellver Muñoz.

Summary of Deliverable 5.3: Articles submitted to scientific journals

This document, as part of the deliverables from the TRANS-FORM Smart transfers through unravelling urban form and travel flow dynamics project, lists the scientific output from the project in terms of oral presentations, externally published papers, and the deliverables from the project. During the project, the project partners have given in total 26 oral presentations related to the project results, many of them at international research conferences. In addition, five additional presentations are scheduled to be held after the project completion. Further, 18 articles, proceedings and book chapters have been published based on the results from the project, where one of the papers is jointly written by members from all project partners. In addition, five future publications are planned. The details on the presentations and the publications are listed in this deliverable.

Are you interested in the full text of this deliverable? Contact: Clas Rydergren.